Most people have experienced the anxiety of not being involved or missing out on something exciting or important. This Fear of Missing Out (or FOMO, for short) is emblematic of humans' fundamental yearning for inclusion and connection and has likely always been a part of our existence.

But today's digital age has magnified how much we know about others' lives, particularly through the lens of social media. This increased awareness can in turn lead to ever-greater FOMO, as we see others' pictures of parties, vacations, and achievements online.

While FOMO is not officially recognized as a psychological disorder, it does have significant impacts on our mental and physical well-being. By understanding the underlying issues that contribute to it, we can better manage our anxiety and worry around missing out and focus on building genuine connections with others.

The Evolution and Psychology of FOMO

Although the term FOMO rose to popularity in the early 2000s as social media began to rise, its roots go far beyond the digital age. in reality, FOMO has been a part of human experience under different guises throughout history.

"In our not-too-distant past, being excluded from social groups could lead to hunger, illness, and death. Our brains are hardwired to seek belonging, social approval, and acceptance."
Jo Nash, PhD;

Social media has only brought this underlying social anxiety into sharper focus by providing a continuous and immediate window into others' lives. This has made the feeling more acute and widespread.

The psychology behind FOMO is complex. At its core, it is fueled by a common cognitive bias - "the grass is always greener on the other side". This bias is a result of the human tendency to overestimate the value of what others have or experience, which consequently leads to a feeling of deprivation and discontentment with one's own life.

Anxiety, one of the key emotional triggers for FOMO, stems from the fear of regret. The prospect of regret can often drive people to make decisions impulsively, spurred on by the fear of missing out on potential opportunities. This can lead to a destructive cycle of continuously seeking new experiences and social validation, while never fully appreciating or enjoying the present moment.

More deeply, FOMO is connected to our innate need for social belonging. As social creatures, humans have a fundamental drive to feel included and valued within a group. This need for social acceptance can cause individuals to be hyper-aware of what others are doing, often leading to feelings of exclusion when they perceive themselves as missing out.

Implications of these cognitive and emotional mechanics manifest in various forms such as compulsive social media usage, inability to disconnect, lower life satisfaction, and even depression. Therefore, understanding the psychology behind FOMO is crucial in devising effective strategies to mitigate its impact on our mental well-being.

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FOMO Across Different Spheres of Life

The influence of FOMO extends across all areas of life.

  • In educational settings, students often grapple with FOMO, feeling compelled to seize every opportunity, whether it's extracurricular activities or social events, driven by a fear of falling behind their peers. This pressure can lead to stress and anxiety, detracting from the educational experience itself.
  • In personal relationships, FOMO can lead to comparisons with others' relationships or lifestyles, often based on the curated glimpses seen on social media or heard in conversations. This can breed discontent and a sense of inadequacy. The paradoxical effect is the erosion of satisfaction with one's own experiences and relationships, undermining the very sense of belonging FOMO seeks.
  • The professional world is not immune to FOMO either. Particularly among entrepreneurs and those in highly competitive fields, the pressure to keep up with peers or industry trends can lead to burnout. The entrepreneurial grind often glorifies being busy and engaged in multiple ventures, feeding into the FOMO narrative and potentially leading to unsustainable work habits.

The Main Contributors to FOMO

While social media significantly contributes to FOMO, it's crucial to recognize that it's not the sole factor.

Social media platforms, with their algorithms and engagement tactics, create a space where the highlight reels of others' lives are constantly on display, which can trigger feelings of envy and inadequacy. Yet, FOMO also arises in everyday life, independent of digital interactions. It can emerge from personal interactions, professional environments, and even within educational settings, reflecting our deep-seated need for social connection and approval.

The broader societal context also fuels FOMO. In a world teeming with choices and opportunities, the fear of missing out takes on a new dimension. It's not just about social events or online interactions; it extends to life decisions, career paths, and even consumer behavior.

The paradox of choice in our modern society often leaves individuals feeling overwhelmed and anxious about their choices, fearing they might miss out on the 'better' option.

Symptoms and Consequences of FOMO

FOMO manifests through a range of symptoms, both psychological and physical.

  • Anxiety and Restlessness - A constant worry about missing out on something important, leading to unease and inability to focus.
  • Low Self-Esteem - Seeing others' achievements can lead to feelings of inferiority and 
    decreased confidence.
  • Distraction - An obsessive need to stay connected can lead to a lack of concentration on the 
    task at hand.
  • Loneliness - Even when physically surrounded by others, individuals may feel socially isolated due to the feeling of missing out.
  • Fatigue - Continual worry can lead to a feeling of constant tiredness.
  • Decreased Appetite - The anxiety and stress associated with FOMO can sometimes affect individuals' eating habits, leading to a lack of appetite.

While many people experience FOMO at least occasionally, there can be serious consequences for those who become enmeshed in its cycle. Individuals may begin to rely heavily on social media or other distractions as a way to cope with the anxiety and restlessness brought on by FOMO.

This can lead to 3 Important Outcomes:


The compulsion to stay constantly connected and updated can significantly hamper productivity. Individuals may find themselves frequently checking their phones or social media platforms, leading to distraction and a significant reduction in work efficiency. Moreover, the anxiety and restlessness associated with FOMO can make it difficult for individuals to focus on tasks, further impacting their ability to be productive. The persistent worry of missed opportunities can divert valuable time and energy away from important tasks, reinforcing a vicious cycle of decreased productivity and heightened FOMO.

2. strained relationships

FOMO can also have a detrimental impact on personal relationships. The constant need to stay connected and updated with others' lives can lead to individuals neglecting real-life interactions and meaningful connections. This can result in feelings of isolation, loneliness, and detachment from loved ones. Moreover, constantly comparing one's life to the seemingly perfect highlight reels of others can create resentment and envy.

3. Increased Stress Levels and Depression

The relentless pursuit of social validation and the fear of missing out on opportunities can lead to heightened stress levels. Moreover, constantly bombarding oneself with curated versions of others' lives can create a distorted perception of reality, leading to feelings of inadequacy and dissatisfaction with one's own life. This can eventually lead to depression in some cases.

Managing FOMO

The good news is that it is entirely possible to overcome the feelings of Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). With the right strategies and mindset, individuals can learn to control FOMO and cultivate a healthier relationship with social interactions and personal decisions.

  • The first step towards managing FOMO is recognizing and acknowledging its existence in our lives. This requires recognizing the triggers that lead to feelings of FOMO.

  • Next, it's essential to cultivate a positive mindset by practicing gratitude and focusing on the present moment. This can help combat the grass-is-greener bias and promote contentment with one's own life.

  • Building genuine connections and fostering a sense of belonging through in-person interactions is also crucial in reducing the impact of FOMO. This can include joining social clubs or volunteering, where individuals can meet like-minded individuals and create meaningful relationships outside of the digital world.

  • Lastly, setting boundaries for ourselves and practicing self-care can help manage anxiety and restlessness associated with FOMO. By taking breaks from social media and prioritizing our mental well-being, we can mitigate the negative impact of FOMO on our lives.

JOMO: The Joy of Missing Out

As a counterbalance to FOMO, the concept of JOMO, or the Joy of Missing Out, has gained traction.

JOMO celebrates the value of being present and finding satisfaction in one's current life and experiences. It's about appreciating the moments of disconnection from the digital world and relishing in the personal choices made, without the shadow of what others are doing.

JOMO encourages a mindful approach to life, where the focus shifts from what we're missing out on to what we're gaining in our chosen activities and interactions. It's about embracing life's limitations and understanding that one can't participate in everything, and that's not only okay but often beneficial.

On, Jo Nash, PhD cites 5 strategies suggested by Tanya Dalton, author of Joy of Missing Out: Live More by Doing Less. They include:

  1. Make a list of activities you enjoy.
  2. Carve out time for meaningful connection and whatever brings you joy during your time off.
  3. Unplug for a certain amount of time each day or week.
  4. Build meaningful offline connections.
  5. Make time for whatever makes you feel happy.

Say Goodbye to FOMO

FOMO can seem like a simple fact of life in today's world, where awareness of and comparisons with others are unavoidable. However, recognizing and managing FOMO can result in a sense of empowerment and control over our decisions and well-being.

Embracing JOMO can also bring joy and contentment to our lives, reminding us that missing out on certain experiences or opportunities doesn't always equate to loss.

As Mark Twain once said, "Comparison is the death of joy."

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Embracing JOMO: Finding Joy in Missing Out; Jo Nash, PhD;

FOMO and Social Media; Sebastian Ocklenburg, Ph.D.; Psychology Today

How to Deal With FOMO In Your Life; Elizabeth Scott, PhD; VeryWellMind

The Psychology Behind the Fear of Missing Out (FOMO); Emily Laurence; Forbes